Electric Vehicles Regulation in Poland
Electric Vehicles in Poland – statistics
The number of electric vehicles in Poland is increasing each year. However, the figures are still very low comparing to western Europe. This makes Polish market interesting for car manufacturers, car dealers and infrastructure investors.
At the end February 2023 a total of number of 70 263 passenger and commercial electric cars were registered in Poland. For the first two months of 2023, their number increased by 5 056 units, i.e. 56% more than in the same period of 2022 – according to the Electromobility Counter run launched by the Polish Automotive Industry Association and the Polish Alternative Fuels Association.
|Total numbers of cars in Poland
|approx. 26,6 mln
|Total number of electric cars in Poland
|approx. 0,07 mln
|Share of electric cars
Data as of Feb 2023
For the whole of 2022, the number of electric cars in Poland increased by 26,439, which was 33 % better than the result achieved in 2021.
In the Electromobility Development Plan prepared in 2016, the Ministry of Energy made the assumption that by the end of 2025, 1 million electric cars would be on Polish roads. It is kind of obvious that governmental target is not realistic and should be updated.
Electric Vehicles Investments
EU electromobility targets, and in particular the ban the sale of new petrol and diesel cars from 2035 onwards is a strong encouragement into rapid green investments in Poland.
Electric cars related investments are boosting in particular with regards to:
- battery and battery components investments,
- electric car charging stations,
- recycling of batteries and electric vehicles components,
- manufacture of electric vehicles and components.
Polish Investment and Trade Agency by half of 2022 supported approx. 30 project for the value of 6 mld EUR. Polish Investment and Trade Agency in their report presents map of electric cars related investments
For this reason number of companies developing production in the electromobility sector is quickly growing. It is worth remembering that electromobility is not only a segment of passenger cars, but also vehicles such as: heavy goods vehicles and delivery vans, buses, planes, rail transport, off-road cars, mopeds, bicycles, scooters.
Electric Car Benefits / Incentives in Poland
Electric car buyers / users may benefit from numerous incentives.
- excise duty exemption
- increase depreciation limit (tax deduction limit)
- exemption from the emission fee for electric vehicles
- the possibility of free parking in city centers in paid parking zones (based on internal municipal regulations and not applicable to private car parks not belonging to municipalities or cities)
- availability of additional parking spaces dedicated to electric vehicles
Driving and access incentives
- the possibility of using bus lanes (until 2025, although this deadline may be extended),
- entering restricted traffic zones in city centers
Financial support for electric car purchase
- possibility of using subsidies for the purchase of a new electric car (financial support)
- administrative facilitation for the creation and construction of charging points (no requirement for a construction permit, no requirement for an electricity trading concession)
- statutory objectives and plans for the development of charging infrastructure by imposing obligations on local authorities in this respect
- ensuring a share of no less than 30% electric vehicles in the fleet of vehicles used by local authorities with more than 50,000 inhabitants.
Under the provisions of the Act, the privileges enjoyed by owners of fully electric cars do not apply to owners of hybrids, which charge themselves while driving.
Electric Vehicle Regulations in Poland
Electric Vehicles – Legal Framework
The first comprehensive local regulation of issues related to electric vehicles was adopted in Poland in the Act of 11 January 2018 on Electromobility and Alternative Fuels (the ‘Electric Vehicles Act’).
One of the key objectives of the Electric Vehicles Act was to create a legal basis for the development of electric vehicle charging infrastructure and to define the rules for the use of these points by consumers and market participants. Apart from that the Electric Vehicles Act focuses on other aspects of electromobility and alternative fuels such as infrastructure, including its technical requirements, information obligations for alternative fuels and clean transport zones.
In addition to above the following legal acts regulate aspects of electric car market in Poland:
- Directive 2014/94/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2014 on the development of alternative fuel infrastructure,
- Ordinance of the Minister of Energy of 26 June 2019 on technical conditions for stations and charging points for electric vehicles,
- Act of 7 July 1994. – Construction Law,
- Ordinance of the Minister of Infrastructure of 17 October 2021 amending the Ordinance on detailed technical conditions for road signs and signals and road traffic safety devices and the conditions for their placement on roads.
Existing privileges for electric vehicle users have also been spread in other acts, such as, the Public Roads Act and the Road Traffic Act.
Green Zones / Clean Transport
An important element of the of the Electric Vehicles Act is the possibility of creating local Green Zones. The zone may be established within the territory of a commune to which vehicles other than electric vehicles and other green cars (hydrogen and natural gas) will not be allowed to enter.
Procurement Obligations for Local Governments
Latest amendment to the Electric Vehicles Act introduces an obligation to on local governments to verify number of electric / gas vehicles within the fleet of the companies (incl. private companies) that are performing public contracts. Communities over 50,000 residents may commission public tasks only to companies in which at least 10% of vehicles are powered by electricity or natural gas. Summer and winter road maintenance services are exempted from this regulation.
Electric Local Transport
Local governments must ensure that when acquiring means of transport the following percentage of low- and zero-emission vehicles is ensured:
- 10% – from January 1, 2023
- 20% – from January 1, 2025
Car Charging Stations Development Plan
The Electric Vehicles Act also stipulates that if private entities fail to build charging stations in sufficient numbers, appropriate action is to be taken by the relevant municipalities to adopt a plan for the construction of publicly accessible charging stations and then for the relevant electricity distribution system operators to build the stations and the charging points therein that are missing to achieve the assumed minimum number of charging points indicated in article 60(1) of the Act, which is:
- 1,000 car charging stations – in communes with a population of more than 1,000,000, where at least 600,000 motor vehicles have been registered and there are at least 700 motor vehicles per 1,000 inhabitants;
- 210 car charging stations – in municipalities with a population of more than 300,000, where at least 200,000 motor vehicles have been registered and there are at least 500 motor vehicles per 1,000 inhabitants;
- 100 car charging stations – in communes with a population of more than 150,000, where at least 95,000 motor vehicles have been registered and there are at least 400 motor vehicles per 1,000 inhabitants;
- 60 car charging stations – in municipalities with a population of more than 100,000, where at least 60,000 motor vehicles have been registered and there are at least 400 motor vehicles per 1,000 inhabitants.
New Buildings and Charging Stations
Newly designed public buildings and multi-family residential buildings, primarily in large cities, equipped with indoor and outdoor parking points, should also have a connection power to equip these buildings with electric vehicle charging points with a capacity of no less than 3.7 kW.
Non-residential buildings with more than 10 parking spaces shall be designed and constructed with at least 1 charging point for every 5 parking spaces.
Residential buildings with more than 10 parking spaces shall be designed allowing charging points to be installed at each parking space.
Map of car charging stations
Map of nearest charging station may be found here: https://eipa.udt.gov.pl